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BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF CABBAGE
Cabbage - perennial crop. Kochan is formed in the first year of life, and to get the seeds, the plant must be subjected to prolonged exposure to decreasing temperature (up to +8 °), which typically occurs in winter storage plants. At the same time delayed processes of growth and the continued metabolism leads to the appearance of qualitatively new growth points of the formations - the rudiments of flowers. In the second year of life head cut off, the remaining stump root and grow out of it long shoots with flowers, collected in flower brush. The flowers have yellow cabbage with four petals arranged crosswise. Therefore, it is relate to the family Cruciferae. Seed cabbage blooming shrubs, depending on weather conditions, from 15 to 25 days. Cross-pollination is a way to help bees and other insects. Cabbage varieties are crossed with each other and with other varieties of cabbage: Brussels, savoy, color, leaf, kohlrabi, but not crossed with Beijing, and Chinese cabbage and turnip, rutabaga, radish and wild Cruciferae. After fertilization, the flower forms a fruit - a pod, a narrow, long (10 cm). Inside the pod is a wall, along which both sides are rounded-angular, brownish-black seeds. In appearance the seeds of different varieties of cabbage and its varieties are indistinguishable. They also resemble the seeds of swede, rape, mustard, turnip, and you can distinguish them only after germination, when the first true leaf. In cabbage leaf surface is smooth, while the swedes, rape, mustard and turnip - with pubescence. As seedlings can be distinguished from the color white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, and savoy. Varieties of cabbage are distinguishable in the phase of technical maturity of head, only experienced professionals can distinguish between varieties in the earlier phases. Requirements for the temperature. Cabbage belongs to a group of cold-resistant vegetable crops. Optimum daytime temperatures adult plants, in which they are properly assimilate and grow - 13 - 18 ° Celsius. Sprouting seeds appear friendly to the third or fourth day when the soil temperature is 18 - 20 °. At lower temperatures delayed germination to 7 - 12 days, and at a temperature below 10 ° is practically difficult to achieve germination. Seedlings grow best when daytime temperatures 12 - 18 ° C and night 8 - 10 °. These conditions contribute to hardening of seedlings, and planting in the ground, it can easily stand up to freezing - 5 °. Adult plants in the phase of technical ripeness head is kept frozen to - 8 °. With heat recovery, they continue to recover turgor and growth.